What is chipset and its role in computer systems?

Most CPUs are second chipsets, which are the first factors that we think of when installing a desktop computer but what is the chipset? How does it affect computer performance? Today we are once again looking for the grandfather of the chipset and the chips around this chip.

Chipsets are components on the motherboard, you do not buy separately as CPUs. The chipset name means a “set” of chips. It basically serves as the motherboard’s communication center, which controls all data transmission activities between hardware and is the component that determines the compatibility between hardware with the motherboard. This hardware includes CPU, RAM, graphics card (GPU) and the hard drive. It also tells us about the ability to upgrade, expand the system, whether an upgrade or an overclocked system.

The brief history of chipset and chipset name:

An IBM motherboard in 1981 with dozens of ICs.
In the early days of computers, computer motherboards were often fitted with many integrated circuits (ICs) with separate functions. These ICs are usually one or more chips that control each component of the system such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics card, sound, network …

Imagine that on a motherboard with small size but there are dozens of such ICs attached, it is clear that the production and operation of the motherboard will not be effective. Therefore, computer engineers need to find a better system and they start integrating single chips into each other, significantly reducing the number of control chips on the motherboard.

With the emergence of standard data transfer between peripheral devices on Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) motherboards, a new concept was born that is a bridge. Instead of a series of chips that have their own functions, the boards are equipped with a chip northbridge and southbridge (south bridge). 2 chips at 2 ends of the board hold very different tasks.

Northbridge (northbridge) has the name because it is located near the top, north of the motherboard. This chip directly connects to the CPU and acts as an intermediate interface for higher-speed hardware in the system, including RAM microcontroller, PCI Express microcontroller and on one The number of older motherboard designs also includes AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) microcontrollers. If this hardware wants to talk to the CPU, they must “turn the word” over the north bridge chip.

The opposite southbridge is located at the other end or south of the motherboard and it is responsible for controlling the operation of slower hardware such as expansion PCI slots, SATA and IDE connections for hard drives, USB ports, integrated audio ports, network … And for this hardware to communicate with the CPU, they must first go through the southbridge, but then they will reach the northbridge and then the CPU.

The north and south bridges share a common relationship:

The design of the traditional north bridge and south bridge is obviously improved over time and from the steps of forming the chipset concept like this one. In fact, modern chipsets no longer mean a set of chips.

Instead, the north and south bridge architects cede to a simpler system with only one chip. Many components such as memory, microcontroller graphics cards … are now integrated and processed directly by the CPU. Therefore, the control functions prioritize switching to the CPU and the remaining tasks are still for a chip like the south bridge chip.

For example, new generation motherboards using Intel processors integrate a chip called the Platform Controller Hub or PCH. It has a similar role to the south bridge chip. PCH then connects to the CPU via Direct Media Interface or DMI. DMI is not new, it is the interface to connect between the south bridge and north bridge on previous Intel systems. AMD’s chipset is no different, the male bridge is now called the Fusion Controller Hub or FCH. The connection interface between CPU and FCH on motherboards running AMD is called Unified Media Interface or UMI.

Thus all control components such as microcontroller storage memory (SATA ports), network, audio … are managed by a single component. Instead of having to go from the south bridge to the northbridge and then to the CPU, all the remaining hardware in the system just needs to communicate via PCH or FCH and then the CPU. As a result, the delay is significantly reduced and the response system is faster.

Chipset determines hardware compatibility:

Chipsets determine three things: the compatibility of hardware (such as CPU or RAM that you can mount on the motherboard), expansion options (how many devices you can mount via PCI) and Overclocking capability (OC). A little more detail:

When assembling, the choice of hardware is very important. Most second CPU chipsets – these two components are always being explored and the first choice is that the chipset always goes with the motherboard, so it can be said that the CPU first and then the motherboard. Once you have a chipset or motherboard, we will know how to choose the remaining hardware, even

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